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Research on cross-chain and interoperability for blockchain system

李鸣 邱鸿霖 徐泉清 宋文鹏 Liu Baixiang
The Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications    2021, 28 (5): 1-17.   DOI: 10.19682/j.cnki.1005-8885.2021.0029
Abstract698)      PDF(pc) (3984KB)(294)       Save

At present, there is an urgent need for blockchain interoperability technology to realize interconnection between various blockchains, data communication and value transfer between blockchains, so as to break the ‘ value silo’ phenomenon of each blockchain. Firstly, it lists what people understand about the concept of interoperability. Secondly, it gives the key technical issues of cross-chain, including cross-chain mechanism, interoperability, eventual consistency, and universality. Then, the implementation of each cross-chain key technology is analyzed, including Hash-locking, two-way peg, notary schemes, relay chain scheme, cross-chain protocol, and global identity system. Immediately after that, five typical cross-chain systems are introduced and comparative analysis is made. In addition, two examples of cross-chain programmability and their analysis are given. Finally, the current state of cross-chain technology is summarized from two aspects: key technology implementation and cross-chain application enforcement. The cross-chain technology as a whole has formed a centralized fixed mechanism, as well as a trend of modular design, and some of the solutions to mature applications were established in the relevant standards organizations, and the cross-chain technology architecture tends to be unified, which is expected to accelerate the evolution of the open cross-chain network that supports the real needs of the interconnection of all chains.



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Dynamic event-triggered leader-follower consensus of nonlinear multi-agent systems under directed weighted topology
Wu Yue, Chen Xiangyong, Qiu Jianlong, Hu Shunwei, Zhao Feng
The Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications    2023, 30 (6): 3-10.   DOI: 10.19682/j.cnki.1005-8885.2023.1019
Abstract649)      PDF(pc) (1536KB)(208)       Save
This paper studies the dynamic event-triggered leader-follower consensus of nonlinear multi-agent systems (MASs) under directed weighted graph containing a directed spanning tree, and also considers the effects of disturbances and leader of non-zero control inputs in the system. Firstly, a novel distributed control protocol is designed for uncertain disturbances and leader of non-zero control inputs in MASs. Secondly, a novel dynamic event-triggered control ( DETC) strategy is proposed, which eliminates the need for continuous communication between agents and reduces communication resources between agents. By introducing dynamic thresholds, the complexity of excluding Zeno behavior within the system is reduced. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed theory is validated through numerical simulation.
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Joint global constraint and Fisher discrimination based multi-layer dictionary learning for image classification
Hong PENG yaozong liu
The Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications    2023, 30 (5): 1-10.   DOI: 10. 19682 / j. cnki. 1005-8885. 2023. 0010
Abstract461)      PDF(pc) (890KB)(206)       Save

    A multi-layer dictionary learning algorithm that joints global constraints and Fisher discrimination (JGCFD-MDL) for image classification tasks was proposed. The algorithm reveals the manifold structure of the data by learning the global constraint dictionary and introduces the Fisher discriminative constraint dictionary to minimize the intra-class dispersion of samples and increase the inter-class dispersion. To further quantify the abstract features that characterize the data, a multi-layer dictionary learning framework is constructed to obtain high-level complex semantic structures and improve image classification performance. Finally, the algorithm is verified on the multi-label dataset of court costumes in the Ming Dynasty and Qing Dynasty, and better performance is obtained. Experiments show that compared with the local similarity algorithm, the average precision is improved by 3.34% . Compared with the single-layer dictionary learning algorithm, the one-error is improved by 1.00% , and the average precision is improved by 0.54% . Experiments also show that it has better performance on general datasets.

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Human motion prediction using optimized sliding window polynomial fitting and recursive least squares
The Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications    2021, 28 (3): 76-85.   DOI: 10.19682/j.cnki.1005-8885.2021.0009
Abstract490)      PDF(pc) (3709KB)(206)       Save

Human motion prediction is a critical issue in human-robot collaboration (HRC) tasks. In order to reduce thelocal error caused by the limitation of the capture range and sampling frequency of the depth sensor, a hybrid human motion prediction algorithm, optimized sliding window polynomial fitting and recursive least squares (OSWPF-RLS) was proposed. The OSWPF-RLS algorithm uses the human body joint data obtained under the HRC task as input, and uses recursive least squares (RLS) to predict the human movement trajectories within the time window. Then, the optimized sliding window polynomial fitting (OSWPF) is used to calculate the multi-step prediction value, and the increment of multi-step prediction value was appropriately constrained. Experimental results show that compared with the existing benchmark algorithms, the OSWPF-RLS algorithm improved the multi-

step prediction accuracy of human motion and enhanced the ability to respond to different human movements.  

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Design and implementation of labor arbitration system based on blockchain
Cui Hongyan CAI Ziyin Teng Shaokai
The Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications    2021, 28 (5): 36-45.   DOI: 10.19682/j.cnki.1005-8885.2021.0032
Abstract412)      PDF(pc) (2975KB)(195)       Save

Data island and information opacity are two major problems in collaborative administration. Blockchain has the potential to provide a trustable and transparent environment encouraging data sharing among administration members. However, the blockchain only stores Hash values and transactions in blocks which makes it unable to store big data and trace their changes. In this paper, a labor arbitration scheme based on blockchain was proposed to share labor arbitration data. In the system, a collaborative administration scheme that provides a big data storage model combined blockchain and interplanetary file system ( IPFS) is designed. It can store big data and share these data among different parties. Moreover, a file version control mechanism based on blockchain is designed to manage the data changes in IPFS network. It creates a tracing chain that consists of many IPFS objects to track changes of stored data. The relationship of previous and current IPFS objects recorded by blockchain can describe the changes of administration data and trace the data operations. The proposed platform is used in Rizhao City in China, and the experiment result shows collaborative administration scheme achieves traceability with high throughput and is more efficient than traditional hypertext transfer protocol ( HTTP) way to share data.

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Real-time hand tracking based on YOLOv4 model and Kalman filter
The Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications    2021, 28 (3): 86-94.   DOI: 10.19682/j.cnki.1005-8885.2021.0011
Abstract627)      PDF(pc) (6638KB)(192)       Save

Aiming at the shortcomings of current gesture tracking methods in accuracy and speed, based on deep learning You Only Look Once version 4 (YOLOv4) model, a new YOLOv4 model combined with Kalman filter rea-time hand tracking method was proposed. The new algorithm can address some problems existing in hand tracking technology such as detection speed, accuracy and stability. The convolutional neural network (CNN) model YOLOv4 is used to detect the target of current frame tracking and Kalman filter is applied to predict the next position and bounding box size of the target according to its current position. The detected target is tracked by comparing the estimated result with the detected target in the next frame and, finally, the real-time hand movement track is displayed. The experimental results validate the proposed algorithm with the overall success rate of 99.43%

at speed of 41.822 frame/ s, achieving superior results than other algorithms. 

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Dynamic load balancing algorithm for distributed system

崔岩松 白春雨
The Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications    2021, 28 (5): 91-101.   DOI: 10.19682/j.cnki.1005-8885.2021.0025
Abstract341)      PDF(pc) (1960KB)(188)       Save

In distributed systems, it is important to adjust load distribution dynamically based on server performance and load information. Meanwhile, gray release and rapid expansion are the basic requirements to ensure reliability and stability for systems with short version iteration cycles. The traditional Hash algorithm performs poorly in gray release, rapid expansion, and load distribution. To solve these problems, a novel Hash-based dynamic mapping (HDM) load balancing algorithm was proposed. On the one hand, this algorithm can adjust the load distribution dynamically based on server performance and load information. On the other hand, it implements gray release by controlling the ratio of requests assigned to the changed nodes. Additionally, HDM has a higher expansion efficiency. Experiments show that the HDM distributes the load more reasonably, provides a more stable gray release ratio, and has a higher expansion efficiency.


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ESO-KELM-based minor sensor fault identification
Zhao Kai, Song Jia, Wang Xinlong
The Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications    2021, 28 (4): 53-63.   DOI: 10.19682/j.cnki.1005-8885.2021.2005
Abstract285)      PDF(pc) (5082KB)(168)       Save
Aiming at the sensor faults of near-space hypersonic vehicles (NSHV), a fault identification method based on the  extended state observer and kernel extreme learning machine (ESO-KELM) is proposed in this paper. The method  is generated by a combination of the model-based method and the data-driven method. As the source of the fault  diagnosis, the residual signals represent the difference between the ESO output and the result measured by the  sensor in particular. The energy of the residual signals is distributed in both low frequency bands and high  frequency bands. However, the energy of the sensor concentrates on the low-frequency bands. Combined with more  different features detected by KELM, the proposed method devotes to improving the accuracy. Meanwhile, it is  competent to calculate the magnitude of minor faults based on time-frequency analysis. Finally, the simulation is  performed on the longitudinal channel of the Winged-Cone model published by the national aeronautics and space  administration (NASA). Results show the validity and the accuracy in calculating the magnitude of the minor  faults.
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Trusted data access and authorization protocol

The Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications    2021, 28 (5): 18-26.   DOI: 10.19682/j.cnki.1005-8885.2021.0028
Abstract446)      PDF(pc) (1270KB)(167)       Save

Threshold proxy re-encryption( PRE) authorizes the data access right of data subject to multiple proxies, who authorize the right again to delegatee to accomplish the end-to-end data encryption process from storage to authorization. Based on threshold PRE algorithm, in order to build a complete trusted data storage and authorization system, the four protocols, which are data access protocol, authorization proxy protocol, authorization proxy cancellation protocol and data reading authorization protocol, are defined completely. On that basis, an efficient data searching method is constructed by specifying the data delegatee. At last, to ensure the right to know of data, the audit log is processed with trusted data right confirmation based on distributed ledger technology. Meanwhile, a parallel data right confirmation processing method is defined based on hierarchical derivation algorithm of public and private key. In the end, the performance evaluation analysis of the protocol are given. Trusted data access and authorization protocol is convenient to build a complete data processing system on the premise of protecting data privacy based on public cloud storage system or distributed storage system.

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Authentication scheme for industrial Internet of things based on DAG blockchain
Tang Fei, Dong Kun, Ye Zhangtao, Ling Guowei
The Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications    2021, 28 (6): 1-12.   DOI: 10.19682/j.cnki.1005-8885.2021.1020
Abstract451)      PDF(pc) (6273KB)(160)       Save
Internet of things ( IoT) can provide the function of product traceability for industrial systems. Emerging  blockchain technology can solve the problem that the current industrial Internet of things ( IIoT) system lacks  unified product data sharing services. Blockchain technology based on the directed acyclic graph (DAG) structure  is more suitable for high concurrency environments. But due to its distributed architecture foundation, direct storage  of product data will cause authentication problems in data management. In response, IIoT based on DAG  blockchain is proposed in this paper, which can provide efficient data management for product data stored on DAG  blockchain, and an authentication scheme suitable for this structure is given. The security of the scheme is based  on a discrete-logarithm-based assumption put forth by Lysyanskaya, Rivest, Sahai and Wolf(LRSW) who also show  that it holds for generic groups. The sequential aggregation signature scheme is more secure and efficient, and the  new scheme is safe in theory and it is more efficient in engineering.
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Partition sampling strategy for robot motion planning under uncertainty
The Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications    2021, 28 (3): 49-62.   DOI: 10.19682/j.cnki.1005-8885.2021.0017
Abstract431)      PDF(pc) (6506KB)(159)       Save

In order to solve the sensing and motion uncertainty problem of motion planning in narrow passage environment, a partition sampling strategy based on partially observable Markov decision process (POMDP) was proposed. The method combines partition sampling strategy and can improve the success rate of the robot motion planning in the narrow passage. Firstly, the environment is divided into open area and narrow area by using a partition sampling strategy, and generates the initial trajectory of the robot with fewer sampling points. Secondly, the method can calculate a local optimal solution of the initial nominal trajectory by solving POMDP problem, and iterates an overall optimal trajectory of robot motion. The proposed method follows the general POMDP solution framework, in which the belief dynamics is approximated by an extended Kalman filter (EKF), and the value function is represented by an effective quadratic function in the belief space near the nominal trajectory. Using a belief space variant of iterative linear quadratic Gaussian (iLQG) to perform the value iteration, which results in a linear control policy over the belief space that is locally optimal around the nominal trajectory. A new nominal trajectory is generated by executing the control strategy iteration, and the process is repeated until it converges to a locally optimal solution. Finally, the robot gets the optimal trajectory to safely pass through a narrow passage. The experimental results show that the proposed method can efficiently improves the performance of motion planning under uncertainty.


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News recommendation based on time factor and word embedding
The Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications    2021, 28 (5): 82-90.   DOI: 10.19682/j.cnki.1005-8885.2021.0026
Abstract323)      PDF(pc) (774KB)(156)       Save

Existing algorithms of news recommendations lack in depth analysis of news texts and timeliness. To address these issues, an algorithm for news recommendations based on time factor and word embedding ( TFWE) was proposed to improve the interpretability and precision of news recommendations. First, TFWE used term frequency- inverse document frequency ( TF-IDF ) to extract news feature words and used the bidirectional encoder representations from transformers ( BERT ) pre-training model to convert the feature words into vector representations. By calculating the distance between the vectors, TFWE analyzed the semantic similarity to construct a user interest model. Second, considering the timeliness of news, a method of calculating news popularity by integrating time factors into the similarity calculation was proposed. Finally, TFWE combined the similarity of news content with the similarity of collaborative filtering ( CF) and recommended some news with higher rankings to users. In addition, results of the experiments on real dataset showed that TFWE significantly improved precision, recall, and F1 score compared to the classic hybrid recommendation algorithm.



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QoE-based video segments caching strategy in urban public  transportation system
Wang Hang, Li Xi, Ji Hong, Zhang Heli
The Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications    2021, 28 (4): 29-38.   DOI: 10.19682/j.cnki.1005-8885.2021.2003
Abstract450)      PDF(pc) (1902KB)(154)       Save
With the rapid development of vehicle-based applications, entertainment videos have gained popularity for  passengers on public vehicles. Therefore, how to provide high quality video service for passengers in typical public  transportation scenarios is an essential problem. This paper proposes a quality of experience (QoE)-based video  segments caching (QoE-VSC) strategy to guarantee the smooth watching experience of passengers. Consequently,  this paper considers a jointly caching scenario where the bus provides the beginning segments of a video, and the  road side unit (RSU) offers the remaining for passengers. To evaluate the effectiveness, QoE hit ratio is defined to  represent the probability that the bus and RSUs jointly provide passengers with desirable video segments  successfully. Furthermore, since passenger volume change will lead to different video preferences, a deep  reinforcement learning (DRL) network is trained to generate the segment replacing policy on the video segments  cached by the bus server. And the training target of DRL is to maximize the QoE hit ratio, thus enabling more  passengers to get the required video. The simulation results prove that the proposed method has a better  performance than baseline methods in terms of QoE hit ratio and cache costs.
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Structural regularized twin support vector machine based on  within-class scatter and between-class scatter
Wu Qing, Fu Yanlin, Fan Jiulun, Ma Tianlu
The Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications    2021, 28 (4): 39-52.   DOI: 10.19682/j.cnki.1005-8885.2021.2004
Abstract298)      PDF(pc) (5460KB)(148)       Save
Robust minimum class variance twin support vector machine (RMCV-TWSVM) presented previously gets better  classification performance than the classical TWSVM. The RMCV-TWSVM introduces the class variance matrix of  positive and negative samples into the construction of two hyperplanes. However, it does not consider the total  structure information of all the samples, which can substantially reduce its classification accuracy. In this paper, a  new algorithm named structural regularized TWSVM based on within-class scatter and between-class scatter (WSBS- STWSVM) is put forward. The WSBS-STWSVM can make full use of the total within-class distribution information  and between-class structure information of all the samples. The experimental results illustrate high classification  accuracy and strong generalization ability of the proposed algorithm.
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Exploring the usefulness of light field super-resolution for object detection
The Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications    2021, 28 (5): 68-81.   DOI: 10.19682/j.cnki.1005-8885.2021.0023
Abstract391)      PDF(pc) (21118KB)(146)       Save

In order to solve the impact of image degradation on object detection, an object detection method based on light field super-resolution ( LFSR) is proposed. This method takes LFSR as an image enhancement step to provide high- quality images for object detection without using expensive imaging equipment. To evaluate this method, three types of objects: person, bicycle, and car, are chosen and the results are compared from 5 parts: detected object quantity, mean confidence score, detection results in different scenes, error detection, and detection results from different images sizes and detection speed. Experimental results based on the common object in context ( COCO) dataset show that the method incorporated LFSR improves performance of object detection models.

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Multi-level sharded blockchain system for edge computing

刘巧 唐碧华 Chen Xue Fan Wu 范文浩
The Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications    2021, 28 (5): 46-58.   DOI: 10.19682/j.cnki.1005-8885.2021.0031
Abstract409)      PDF(pc) (3905KB)(146)       Save

Blockchain technology is used in edge computing ( EC) systems to solve the security problems caused by single point of failure ( SPOF) due to data loss, task execution failure, or control by malicious nodes. However, the disadvantage of blockchain is high latency, which contradicts the strict latency requirements of EC services. The existing single-level sharded blockchain system ( SLSBS) cannot provide different quality of service for different tasks. To solve these problems, a multi-level sharded blockchain system ( MLSBS) based on genetic algorithm ( GA) is proposed. The shards are classified according to the delay of the service, and the parameters such as the shard size of different shards are different. Using the GA, the MLSBS obtains the optimal resource allocation strategy that achieves maximum security. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme outperforms SLSBS.


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Resource allocation and hybrid prediction scheme for low-latency  visual feedbacks to support tactile Internet multimodal perceptions
Kang Mancong, Li Xi, Ji Hong, Zhang Heli
The Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications    2021, 28 (4): 13-28.   DOI: 10.19682/j.cnki.1005-8885.2021.2002
Abstract358)      PDF(pc) (3476KB)(144)       Save
Predicting user states in future and rendering visual feedbacks accordingly can effectively reduce the visual  experienced delay in the tactile Internet (TI). However, most works omit the fact that different parts in an image  may have distinct prediction requirements, based on which different prediction models can be used in the predicting  process, and then it can further improve predicting quality especially under resources-limited environment. In this  paper, a hybrid prediction scheme is proposed for the visual feedbacks in a typical TI scenario with mixed visuo- haptic interactions, in which haptic traffic needs sufficient wireless resources to meet its stringent communication  requirement, leaving less radio resources for the visual feedback. First, the minimum required number of radio  resources for haptic traffic is derived based on the haptic communication requirements, and wireless resources are  allocated to the haptic and visual traffics afterwards. Then, a grouping strategy is designed based on the deep neural  network (DNN) to allocate different parts from an image feedback into two groups to use different prediction  models, which jointly considers the prediction deviation thresholds, latency and reliability requirements, and the  bit sizes of different image parts. Simulations show that, the hybrid prediction scheme can further reduce the visual  experienced delay under haptic traffic requirements compared with existing strategies.
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Design and verification of on-chip debug circuit based on JTAG
The Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications    2021, 28 (3): 95-101.   DOI: 10.19682/j.cnki.1005-8885.2021.0019
Abstract340)      PDF(pc) (4057KB)(144)       Save

Aiming at the shortcomings of current gesture tracking methods in accuracy and speed, based on deep learning You Only Look Once version 4 (YOLOv4) model, a new YOLOv4 model combined with Kalman filter rea-time hand tracking method was proposed. The new algorithm can address some problems existing in hand tracking technology such as detection speed, accuracy and stability. The convolutional neural network (CNN) model YOLOv4 is used to detect the target of current frame tracking and Kalman filter is applied to predict the next position and bounding box size of the target according to its current position. The detected target is tracked by comparing the estimated result with the detected target in the next frame and, finally, the real-time hand movement track is displayed. The experimental results validate the proposed algorithm with the overall success rate of 99.43%

at speed of 41.822 frame/ s, achieving superior results than other algorithms. 

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Covert communication based on transmission antenna selection in the downlink communication link
The Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications    2021, 28 (3): 20-27.   DOI: 10.19682/j.cnki.1005-8885.2021.0008
Abstract349)      PDF(pc) (1267KB)(144)       Save


A downlink covert communication model that consists of a base station and two legitimate users was considered. In addition to the general signals shared by the two users, the base station will send the covert signals only to one user in a certain time without wanting the other to detect this covert communication behavior. In order to achieve covert communication, two information transmission schemes are designed based on transmission antenna selection (TAS) with the help of artificial noise (AN) transmitted by the user receiving the covert signals, denoted as TAS-Ι and TAS-Πrespectively. Considering the best detection performance of the user only receiving the general signals, under the two schemes, the detection error probabilities and their average values, the connection probabilities, the system covert throughputs are separately calculated. In addition, on the premise of meeting the system’s covert conditions, an optimization scheme is proposed to maximize the covert system throughput. Finally, the simulation

results show that the proposed system can realize covert communication successfully, and the system covert performance under TAS-Ι is better than that under TAS-Π.


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Research on flame classification and recognition based on object detection and similarity fusion
The Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications    2021, 28 (5): 59-67.   DOI: 10.19682/j.cnki.1005-8885.2021.0020
Abstract339)      PDF(pc) (3086KB)(143)       Save

The color, shape, and other appearance characteristics of the flame emitted by different flame engines are different. In order to make a preliminary judgment on the category of the device to which it belongs through studying exterior characteristics of the flame, this paper uses the flame of matches, lighters, and candles to simulate different types of flames. It is hoped that the flames can be located and classified by detecting the characteristics of flames using the object detection algorithm. First, different types of fire are collected for the dataset of experiments. The mmDetection toolbox is then used to build several different object detection frameworks, in which the dataset can be trained and tested. The object detection model suitable for this kind of problem is obtained through the evaluation index analysis. The model is ResNet50-based faster-region-convolutional neural network ( Faster R- CNN), whose mean average-precision ( mAP) is 93.6% . Besides, after clipping the detected flames through object detection, a similarity fusion algorithm is used to aggregate and classify the three types of flames. Finally, the color components are analyzed to obtain the red, green, blue ( RGB) color histograms of the three flames.


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