Research on cross-chain and interoperability for blockchain system
At present, there is an urgent need for blockchain interoperability technology to realize interconnection between various blockchains, data communication and value transfer between blockchains, so as to break the ‘ value silo’ phenomenon of each blockchain. Firstly, it lists what people understand about the concept of interoperability. Secondly, it gives the key technical issues of cross-chain, including cross-chain mechanism, interoperability, eventual consistency, and universality. Then, the implementation of each cross-chain key technology is analyzed, including Hash-locking, two-way peg, notary schemes, relay chain scheme, cross-chain protocol, and global identity system. Immediately after that, five typical cross-chain systems are introduced and comparative analysis is made. In addition, two examples of cross-chain programmability and their analysis are given. Finally, the current state of cross-chain technology is summarized from two aspects: key technology implementation and cross-chain application enforcement. The cross-chain technology as a whole has formed a centralized fixed mechanism, as well as a trend of modular design, and some of the solutions to mature applications were established in the relevant standards organizations, and the cross-chain technology architecture tends to be unified, which is expected to accelerate the evolution of the open cross-chain network that supports the real needs of the interconnection of all chains.
In order to study the role of the new technological concept of shared experiences in the digital interactive experience of cultural heritage and apply it to the digital interactive experience of cultural heritage to solve the current problems in this field, starting from the mixed reality (MR) technology that the shared experiences rely on, proper software and hardware platforms were investigated and selected, a universal shared experiences solution was designed, and an experimental project based on the proposed solution was made to verify its feasibility. In the end, a proven and workable shared experiences solution was obtained. This solution included a proposed MR spatial alignment method, and it integrated the existing MR content production process and standard network synchronization functions. Furthermore, it is concluded that the introduction and reasonable use of new technologies can help the development of the digital interactive experience of cultural heritage. The shared experiences solution for the digital interactive experience of cultural heritage balances investment issues in the exhibition, display effect, and user experience. It can speed up the promotion of cultural heritage and bring the vitality of MR technology to relevant projects.
Trusted data access and authorization protocol
Threshold proxy re-encryption( PRE) authorizes the data access right of data subject to multiple proxies, who authorize the right again to delegatee to accomplish the end-to-end data encryption process from storage to authorization. Based on threshold PRE algorithm, in order to build a complete trusted data storage and authorization system, the four protocols, which are data access protocol, authorization proxy protocol, authorization proxy cancellation protocol and data reading authorization protocol, are defined completely. On that basis, an efficient data searching method is constructed by specifying the data delegatee. At last, to ensure the right to know of data, the audit log is processed with trusted data right confirmation based on distributed ledger technology. Meanwhile, a parallel data right confirmation processing method is defined based on hierarchical derivation algorithm of public and private key. In the end, the performance evaluation analysis of the protocol are given. Trusted data access and authorization protocol is convenient to build a complete data processing system on the premise of protecting data privacy based on public cloud storage system or distributed storage system.
Data island and information opacity are two major problems in collaborative administration. Blockchain has the potential to provide a trustable and transparent environment encouraging data sharing among administration members. However, the blockchain only stores Hash values and transactions in blocks which makes it unable to store big data and trace their changes. In this paper, a labor arbitration scheme based on blockchain was proposed to share labor arbitration data. In the system, a collaborative administration scheme that provides a big data storage model combined blockchain and interplanetary file system ( IPFS) is designed. It can store big data and share these data among different parties. Moreover, a file version control mechanism based on blockchain is designed to manage the data changes in IPFS network. It creates a tracing chain that consists of many IPFS objects to track changes of stored data. The relationship of previous and current IPFS objects recorded by blockchain can describe the changes of administration data and trace the data operations. The proposed platform is used in Rizhao City in China, and the experiment result shows collaborative administration scheme achieves traceability with high throughput and is more efficient than traditional hypertext transfer protocol ( HTTP) way to share data.
Multi-level sharded blockchain system for edge computing
Blockchain technology is used in edge computing ( EC) systems to solve the security problems caused by single point of failure ( SPOF) due to data loss, task execution failure, or control by malicious nodes. However, the disadvantage of blockchain is high latency, which contradicts the strict latency requirements of EC services. The existing single-level sharded blockchain system ( SLSBS) cannot provide different quality of service for different tasks. To solve these problems, a multi-level sharded blockchain system ( MLSBS) based on genetic algorithm ( GA) is proposed. The shards are classified according to the delay of the service, and the parameters such as the shard size of different shards are different. Using the GA, the MLSBS obtains the optimal resource allocation strategy that achieves maximum security. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme outperforms SLSBS.
Extensive game analysis and improvement strategy of DPOS consensus mechanism
Delegated proof-of-stake ( DPOS) consensus mechanism is widely adopted in blockchain platforms, but problems exist in its current applications. In order to explore the security risks in the voting attack of the DPOS consensus mechanism, an extensive game model between nodes was constructed, and it was concluded that the DPOS consensus mechanism relies too much on tokens, and the possibility of node attacks is very high. In order to solve the problems of frequent changes of DPOS consensus mechanism nodes, inactive node voting, excessive reliance on tokens, and malicious nodes, a dynamic, credible, and attack-evading DPOS consensus mechanism was proposed. In addition, the Python simulation results show that the improved Bayesian voting algorithm is effective in calculating node scores.
In order to solve the impact of image degradation on object detection, an object detection method based on light field super-resolution ( LFSR) is proposed. This method takes LFSR as an image enhancement step to provide high- quality images for object detection without using expensive imaging equipment. To evaluate this method, three types of objects: person, bicycle, and car, are chosen and the results are compared from 5 parts: detected object quantity, mean confidence score, detection results in different scenes, error detection, and detection results from different images sizes and detection speed. Experimental results based on the common object in context ( COCO) dataset show that the method incorporated LFSR improves performance of object detection models.
The color, shape, and other appearance characteristics of the flame emitted by different flame engines are different. In order to make a preliminary judgment on the category of the device to which it belongs through studying exterior characteristics of the flame, this paper uses the flame of matches, lighters, and candles to simulate different types of flames. It is hoped that the flames can be located and classified by detecting the characteristics of flames using the object detection algorithm. First, different types of fire are collected for the dataset of experiments. The mmDetection toolbox is then used to build several different object detection frameworks, in which the dataset can be trained and tested. The object detection model suitable for this kind of problem is obtained through the evaluation index analysis. The model is ResNet50-based faster-region-convolutional neural network ( Faster R- CNN), whose mean average-precision ( mAP) is 93.6% . Besides, after clipping the detected flames through object detection, a similarity fusion algorithm is used to aggregate and classify the three types of flames. Finally, the color components are analyzed to obtain the red, green, blue ( RGB) color histograms of the three flames.