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Analysis of 3D NAND technologies and comparison between charge-trap-based and floating-gate-based flash devices
JOURNAL OF CHINA UNIVERSITIES OF POSTS AND TELECOM    2017, 24 (3): 75-82.   DOI: 10.1016/S1005-8885(17)60214-0
Abstract549)      PDF(pc) (1498KB)(1064)       Save
NAND flash chips have been innovated from two-dimension (2D) design which is based on planar NAND cells to three-dimension (3D) design which is based on vertical NAND cells. Two types of NAND flash technologies–charge-trap (CT) and floating-gate (FG) are presented in this paper to introduce NAND flash designs in detail. The physical characteristics of CT-based and FG-based 3D NAND flashes are analyzed. Moreover, the advantages and disadvantages of these two technologies in architecture, manufacture, interference and reliability are studied and compared.
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Design and implementation of labor arbitration system based on blockchain
Cui Hongyan CAI Ziyin Teng Shaokai
The Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications    2021, 28 (5): 36-45.   DOI: 10.19682/j.cnki.1005-8885.2021.0032
Abstract299)      PDF(pc) (2975KB)(102)       Save

Data island and information opacity are two major problems in collaborative administration. Blockchain has the potential to provide a trustable and transparent environment encouraging data sharing among administration members. However, the blockchain only stores Hash values and transactions in blocks which makes it unable to store big data and trace their changes. In this paper, a labor arbitration scheme based on blockchain was proposed to share labor arbitration data. In the system, a collaborative administration scheme that provides a big data storage model combined blockchain and interplanetary file system ( IPFS) is designed. It can store big data and share these data among different parties. Moreover, a file version control mechanism based on blockchain is designed to manage the data changes in IPFS network. It creates a tracing chain that consists of many IPFS objects to track changes of stored data. The relationship of previous and current IPFS objects recorded by blockchain can describe the changes of administration data and trace the data operations. The proposed platform is used in Rizhao City in China, and the experiment result shows collaborative administration scheme achieves traceability with high throughput and is more efficient than traditional hypertext transfer protocol ( HTTP) way to share data.

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Mining microblog user interests based on TextRank with TF-IDF factor
Tu Shouzhong, Huang Minlie
JOURNAL OF CHINA UNIVERSITIES OF POSTS AND TELECOM    2016, 23 (5): 40-46.   DOI: 10.1016/S1005-8885(16)60056-0
Abstract3057)      PDF(pc) (1273KB)(994)       Save
It is of great value and significance to model the interests of microblog user in terms of business and sociology. This paper presents a framework for mining and analyzing personal interests from microblog text with a new algorithm which integrates term frequency-inverse document frequency (TF-IDF) with TextRank. Firstly, we build a three-tier category system of user interest based on Wikipedia. In order to obtain the keywords of interest, we preprocess the posts, comments and reposts in different categories to select the keywords which appear both in the category system and microblogs. We then assign weight to each category and calculate the weight of keyword to get TF-IDF factors. Finally we score the ranking of each keyword by the TextRank algorithm with TF-IDF factors. Experiments on real Sina microblog data demonstrate that the precision of our approach significantly outperforms other existing methods.
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Cited: Baidu(20)
Design of hexagon microstrip antenna for vehicle-to-vehicle communication
Hao Honggang, Li Jiayu,Huang Daili, Luo Wei
JOURNAL OF CHINA UNIVERSITIES OF POSTS AND TELECOM    2016, 23 (4): 69-76.   DOI: 10.1016/S1005-8885(16)60047-X
Abstract3898)      PDF(pc) (2265KB)(806)       Save
Considering the shortcomings of the existing vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication antennas, this paper proposes a regular hexagon broadband microstrip antenna. By loading shorting pins and etching V-shape slots with different size at each angle of the regular hexagon patch, it realizes impedance matching and obtains better impedance bandwidth. The simulated results show that the relative bandwidth of this antenna reaches 35.55%, covers the frequency band of 4.74 GHz to 6.79 GHz. The antenna acquires an omni-directional radiation pattern in the horizontal plane whose out of roundness is less than 0.5 dB. In addition, the antenna is manufactured and tested, whose tested results are basically consistent with simulated results. Because the height of antenna is 3 mm, it is easy to be hidden on roof of a vehicle for V2V communication.
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Fog computing for vehicular Ad-hoc networks: paradigms, scenarios, and issues
Abstract1832)      PDF(pc) (2445KB)(1255)       Save
Vehicular Ad-hoc networks (VANETs) are kinds of mobile Ad-hoc networks (MANETs), which consist of mobile vehicles with on-board units (OBUs) and roadside units (RSUs). With the rapid development of computation and communication technologies, peripheral or incremental changes in VANETs evolve into a revolution in process. Cloud computing as a solution has been deployed to satisfy vehicles in VANETs which are expected to require resources (such as computing, storage and networking). Recently, with special requirements of mobility, location awareness, and low latency, there has been growing interest in research into the role of fog computing in VANETs. The merging of fog computing with VANETs opens an area of possibilities for applications and services on the edge of the cloud computing. Fog computing deploys highly virtualized computing and communication facilities at the proximity of mobile vehicles in VANET. Mobile vehicles in VANET can also demand services of low-latency and short-distance local connections via fog computing. This paper presents the current state of the research and future perspectives of fog computing in VANETs. Moreover, we discuss the characteristics of fog computing and services based on fog computing platform provided for VANETs. In this paper, some opportunities for challenges and issues are mentioned, related techniques that need to be considered have been discussed in the context of fog computing in VANETs. Finally, we discuss about research directions of potential future work for fog computing in VANETs. Within this article, readers can have a more thorough understanding of fog computing for VANETs and the trends in this domain.
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Cited: Baidu(29)
Autonomous parking control for intelligent vehicles based on a novel algorithm
Hongbo Gao Guotao Xie Xin-Yu ZHANG Bo Cheng
JOURNAL OF CHINA UNIVERSITIES OF POSTS AND TELECOM    2017, 24 (4): 51-56.   DOI: 10.1016/S1005-8885(17)60223-1
Abstract684)      PDF(pc) (932KB)(904)       Save
Along with the increasing number of vehicles, parking space becomes narrow gradually, safety parking puts forward higher requirements on the driver’s driving technology. How to safely, quickly and accurately park the vehiclo to parking space right? This paper presents an automatic parking scheme based on trajectory planning, which analyzing the mechanical model of the vehicle, establishing vehicle steering model and parking model, coming to the conclusion that it is the turning radius is independent of the vehicle speed at low speed. The Matlab simulation environment verifies the correctness and effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for parking. A class of the automatic parking problem of intelligent vehicles is solved.
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Cited: Baidu(2)
Web log classification framework with data augmentation based on GANs
He Mingshu, Jin Lei, Wang Xiaojuan, Li Yuan
The Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications    2020, 27 (5): 34-46.   DOI: 10.19682/j.cnki.1005-8885.2020.0020
Abstract353)      PDF(pc) (1352KB)(74)       Save
Attacks on web servers are part of the most serious threats in network security fields. Analyzing logs of web attacks is an effective approach for malicious behavior identification. Traditionally, machine learning models based on labeled data are popular identification methods. Some deep learning models are also recently introduced for analyzing logs based on web logs classification. However, it is limited to the amount of labeled data in model training. Web logs with labels which mark specific categories of data are difficult to obtain. Consequently, it is necessary to follow the problem about data generation with a focus on learning similar feature representations from the original data and improve the accuracy of classification model. In this paper, a novel framework is proposed, which differs in two important aspects: one is that long short-term memory (LSTM) is incorporated into generative adversarial networks (GANs) to generate the logs of web attack. The other is that a data augment model is proposed by adding logs of web attack generated by GANs to the original dataset and improved the performance of the classification model. The results experimentally demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. It improved the classification accuracy from 89.04% to 95.04%.
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Quality of experience evaluation of HTTP video streaming based on user interactive behaviors
JOURNAL OF CHINA UNIVERSITIES OF POSTS AND TELECOM    2017, 24 (3): 24-32.   DOI: 10.1016/S1005-8885(17)60208-5
Abstract497)      PDF(pc) (1897KB)(256)       Save
User interactive behaviors play a dual role during the hypertext transfer protocol (HTTP) video service: reflection and influence. However, they are seldom taken into account in practices. To this end, this paper puts forward the user interactive behaviors, as subjective factors of quality of experience (QoE) from viewer level, to structure a comprehensive multilayer evaluation model based on classic network quality of service (QoS) and application QoS. First, dual roles of user behaviors are studied and the characteristics are extracted where the user experience is correlated with user interactive behaviors. Furthermore, we categorize QoE factors into three dimensions and build the metric system. Then we perform the subjective tests and investigate the relationships among network path quality, user behaviors, and QoE. Ultimately, we employ the back propagation neural network (BPNN) to validate our analysis and model. Through the simulation experiment of mathematical and BPNN, the dual effects of user interaction behaviors on the reflection and influence of QoE in the video stream are analyzed, and the QoE metric system and evaluation model are established.
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GMSK iterative carrier recovery for AIS burst-mode
JOURNAL OF CHINA UNIVERSITIES OF POSTS AND TELECOM    2017, 24 (3): 1-6.   DOI: 10.1016/S1005-8885(17)60205-X
Abstract850)      PDF(pc) (836KB)(446)       Save
In this paper, an iterative carrier recovery algorithm of Gaussian filtered minimum shift keying (GMSK) in burst-mode was designed. The data utilization rate and precision of the traditional demodulation method for recovering carrier signal in burst data packet with limited-length is poor. In order to solve this problem, this paper proposed an iterative carrier recovery algorithm. This algorithm can improve the estimated precision of carrier recovery and data utilization rate of burst data packet in a large extent by performing multiple forward and backward iterations. And the algorithm can be implemented in Simulink environment. As the communication mode of automatic identification system (AIS) is abrupt, the algorithm is especially suitable for satellite-based AIS.
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Meta-heuristic optimization inspired by proton-electron swarm
The Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications    2020, 27 (3): 42-52.   DOI: 10.19682/j.cnki.1005-8885.2020.0015
Abstract278)      PDF(pc) (4683KB)(170)       Save
While solving unimodal function problems, conventional meta-heuristic algorithms often suffer from low accuracy and slow convergence. Therefore, in this paper, a novel meta-heuristic optimization algorithm, named proton-electron swarm (PES), is proposed based on physical rules. This algorithm simulates the physical phenomena of like-charges repelling each other while opposite charges attracting in protons and electrons, and establishes a mathematical model to realize the optimization process. By balancing the global exploration and local exploitation ability, this algorithm achieves high accuracy and avoids falling into local optimum when solving target problem. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of this algorithm, 23 classical benchmark functions were selected for comparative experiments. Experimental results show that, compared with the contrast algorithms, the proposed algorithm cannot only obtain higher accuracy and convergence speed in solving unimodal function problems, but also maintain strong optimization ability in solving multimodal function problems.
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Polarization-based optimal detection scheme for digital self-interference cancellation in full-duplex system
The Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications    2020, 27 (3): 73-82.   DOI: 10.19682/j.cnki.1005-8885.2020.0018
Abstract295)      PDF(pc) (1433KB)(142)       Save
In order to detect and cancel the self-interference (SI) signal from desired binary phase-shift keying (BPSK) signal, the polarization-based optimal detection (POD) scheme for cancellation of digital SI in a full-duplex (FD) system is proposed. The POD scheme exploits the polarization domain to isolate the desired signal from the SI signal and then cancel the SI to obtain the interference-free desired signal at the receiver. In FD communication, after antenna and analog cancellation, the receiver still contains residual SI due to non-linearities of hardware imperfections. In POD scheme, a likelihood ratio expression is obtained, which isolates and detects SI bits from the desired bits. After isolation of these signal points, the POD scheme cancels the residual SI. As compared to the conventional schemes, the proposed POD scheme gives significantly low bit error rate (BER), a clear constellation diagram to obtain the boundary between desired and SI signal points, and increases the receiver's SI cancellation performance in low signal to interference ratio (SIR) environment.
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One-bit compressed sensing recovery algorithm robust to perturbation
Abstract317)      PDF(pc) (786KB)(332)       Save
One-bit compressed sensing(CS) technology reconstructs the sparse signal when the available measurements are reduced to only their sign-bit. It is well known that CS reconstruction should know the measurement matrix exactly to obtain a correct result. However, the measurement matrix is probably perturbed in many practical scenarios. An iterative algorithm called perturbed binary iterative hard thresholding (PBIHT) is proposed to reconstruct the sparse signal from the binary measurements (sign measurements) where the measurement matrix experiences a general perturbation. The proposed algorithm can reconstruct the original data without any prior knowledge about the perturbation. Specifically, using the ideas of the gradient descent, PBIHT iteratively estimates signal and perturbation until the estimation converges. Simulation results demonstrate that, under certain conditions, PBIHT improves the performance of signal reconstruction in the perturbation scenario.
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Energy aware hierarchical cluster-based routing protocol for WSNs
Wang Ke, Ou Yangrui, Ji Hong, Zhang Heli, Li Xi
JOURNAL OF CHINA UNIVERSITIES OF POSTS AND TELECOM    2016, 23 (4): 46-52.   DOI: 10.1016/S1005-8885(16)60044-4
Abstract3831)      PDF(pc) (604KB)(425)       Save
Wireless sensor networks (WSNs) are emerging as essential and popular ways of providing pervasive computing environments for various applications. Unbalanced energy consumption is an inherent problem in WSNs, characterized by multi-hop routing and a many-to-one traffic pattern. This uneven energy dissipation can significantly reduce network lifetime. In multi-hop sensor networks, information obtained by the monitoring nodes need to be routed to the sinks, the energy consumption rate per unit information transmission depends on the choice of the next hop node. In an energy-aware routing approach, most proposed algorithms aim at minimizing the total energy consumption or maximizing network lifetime. In this paper, we propose a novel energy aware hierarchical cluster-based (NEAHC) routing protocol with two goals: minimizing the total energy consumption and ensuring fairness of energy consumption between nodes. We model the relay node choosing problem as a nonlinear programming problem and use the property of convex function to find the optimal solution. We also evaluate the proposed algorithm via simulations at the end of this paper.
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Cited: Baidu(13)
GrabCut image segmentation algorithm based on structure tensor
JOURNAL OF CHINA UNIVERSITIES OF POSTS AND TELECOM    2017, 24 (2): 48-56.   DOI: 10.1016/S1005-8885(17)60197-3
Abstract625)      PDF(pc) (1932KB)(366)       Save
This paper attempts to present an interactive color natural images segmentation method. This method extracts the feature of images by using the nonlinear compact structure tensor (NCST) and then uses GrabCut method to obtain the segmentation. This method not only realizes the non-parametric fusion of texture information and color information, but also improves the efficiency of the calculation. Then, the improved GrabCut algorithm is used to evaluate the foreground target segmentation. In order to calculate the simplicity and efficiency, this paper also extends the Gaussian mixture model (GMM) constructed base on the GrabCut to the tensor space, and uses the Kullback-Leibler (KL) divergence instead of the usual Riemannian geometry. Lastly, an iteration convergence criterion is proposed to reduce the time of the iteration of GrabCut algorithm dramatically with satisfied segmentation accuracy. After conducting a large number of experiments on synthetic texture images and natural images, the results demonstrate that this method has a more accurate segmentation effect.
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Research on cross-chain and interoperability for blockchain system

李鸣 邱鸿霖 徐泉清 宋文鹏 Liu Baixiang
The Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications    2021, 28 (5): 1-17.   DOI: 10.19682/j.cnki.1005-8885.2021.0029
Abstract535)      PDF(pc) (3984KB)(138)       Save

At present, there is an urgent need for blockchain interoperability technology to realize interconnection between various blockchains, data communication and value transfer between blockchains, so as to break the ‘ value silo’ phenomenon of each blockchain. Firstly, it lists what people understand about the concept of interoperability. Secondly, it gives the key technical issues of cross-chain, including cross-chain mechanism, interoperability, eventual consistency, and universality. Then, the implementation of each cross-chain key technology is analyzed, including Hash-locking, two-way peg, notary schemes, relay chain scheme, cross-chain protocol, and global identity system. Immediately after that, five typical cross-chain systems are introduced and comparative analysis is made. In addition, two examples of cross-chain programmability and their analysis are given. Finally, the current state of cross-chain technology is summarized from two aspects: key technology implementation and cross-chain application enforcement. The cross-chain technology as a whole has formed a centralized fixed mechanism, as well as a trend of modular design, and some of the solutions to mature applications were established in the relevant standards organizations, and the cross-chain technology architecture tends to be unified, which is expected to accelerate the evolution of the open cross-chain network that supports the real needs of the interconnection of all chains.

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Small-signal switch model of GaN HEMTs for MMIC applications
Du Lin, Yang Xiaofeng, Li Yang, Zhang Jincheng, Hao Yue
JOURNAL OF CHINA UNIVERSITIES OF POSTS AND TELECOM    2016, 23 (5): 56-60.   DOI: 10.1016/S1005-8885(16)60058-4
Abstract3170)      PDF(pc) (1717KB)(448)       Save
Gallium nitride (GaN) high electron mobility transistor (HEMT) with symmetrical structure as a control device is discussed in this paper. The equivalent circuit model is proposed on the basis of physical and electrical properties of the GaN HEMT device. A transistor with 0.5 μm gate length and 6 × 125 μm gate width is fabricated to verify the model, which can be treated as a single pole single throw (SPST) switch due to the ON state and OFF state. The measurement results show a good agreement with the simulation results, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed model.
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Energy-efficiency based downlink multi-user hybrid beamforming for millimeter wave massive MIMO system
Jiang Jing,Cheng Xiaoxue, Xie Yongbin
JOURNAL OF CHINA UNIVERSITIES OF POSTS AND TELECOM    2016, 23 (4): 53-62.   DOI: 10.1016/S1005-8885(16)60045-6
Abstract3973)      PDF(pc) (806KB)(416)       Save
The fifth generation mobile communication (5G) systems can provide Gbit/s data rates from massive multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) combined with the emerging use of millimeter wavelengths in small heterogeneous cells. This paper develops an energy-efficiency based multi-user hybrid beamforming for downlink millimeter wave (mmWave) massive MIMO systems. To make better use of directivity gains of the analog beamforming and flexible baseband processing of the digital beamforming, this paper proposes the analog beamforming to select the optimal beam which can maximize the power of the objective user and minimize the interference to all other users. In addition, the digital beamforming maximizes the energy efficiency of the objective user with zero-gradient-based approach. Simulation results show the proposed algorithm provide better bit error rate (BER) performance compared with the traditional hybrid beamforming and obviously improved the sum rate with the increase in the number of users. It is proved that multi-user MIMO (MU-MIMO) can be a perfect candidate for mmWave massive MIMO communication system. Furthermore, the analog beamforming can mitigate the inter-user interference more effectively with the selection of the optimal beam and the digital beamforming can greatly improve the system performance through flexible baseband processing.
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Cited: Baidu(2)
Construction of authentication codes with distrust arbitration from polynomials over finite fields
Chen Shangdi, Tian Wenjing, Li Xue
JOURNAL OF CHINA UNIVERSITIES OF POSTS AND TELECOM    2017, 24 (1): 87-95.   DOI: 10.1016/S1005-8885(17)60191-2
Abstract1397)      PDF(pc) (292KB)(1157)       Save
The authentication codes with arbitration are able to solve dispute between the sender and the receiver. The authentication codes with trusted arbitration are called , the authentication codes with distrust arbitration are called . As an expansion of , an is an authentication system which is closer to the reality environment. Therefore, have more extensive application value. In this paper, we construct a class of based on polynomials over finite fields, give the parameters of the constructed codes, and calculate a variety of cheating attacks the maximum probabilities of success. Especially, in a special case, the constructed are perfect. Compared with a known type of codes, they have almost the same security level, however, our codes need less storage requirements. Therefore, our codes have more advantages.
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Face recognition system based on CNN and LBP features for classifier optimization and fusion
JOURNAL OF CHINA UNIVERSITIES OF POSTS AND TELECOM    2018, 25 (1): 37-47.   DOI: 10.19682/j.cnki.1005-8885.2018.0004
Abstract376)      PDF(pc) (2094KB)(433)       Save
Face recognition has been a hot-topic in the field of pattern recognition where feature extraction and classification play an important role. However, convolutional neural network (CNN) and local binary pattern (LBP) can only extract single features of facial images, and fail to select the optimal classifier. To deal with the problem of classifier parameter optimization, two structures based on the support vector machine (SVM) optimized by artificial bee colony (ABC) algorithm are proposed to classify CNN and LBP features separately. In order to solve the single feature problem, a fusion system based on CNN and LBP features is proposed. The facial features can be better represented by extracting and fusing the global and local information of face images. We achieve the goal by fusing the outputs of feature classifiers. Explicit experimental results on Olivetti Research Laboratory (ORL) and face recognition technology (FERET) databases show the superiority of proposed approaches.
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Correlation-based identification approach for multimodal biometric fusion
JOURNAL OF CHINA UNIVERSITIES OF POSTS AND TELECOM    2017, 24 (4): 34-39.   DOI: 10.1016/S1005-8885(17)60221-8
Abstract605)      PDF(pc) (999KB)(366)       Save
Information fusion is a key step in multimodal biometric systems. The feature-level fusion is more effective than the score-level and decision-level method owing to the fact that the original feature set contains richer information about the biometric data. In this paper, we present a multiset generalized canonical discriminant projection (MGCDP) method for feature-level multimodal biometric information fusion, which maximizes the correlation of the intra-class features while minimizes the correlation of the between-class. In addition, the serial MGCDP (S-MGCDP) and parallel MGCDP (P-MGCDP) strategy were also proposed, which can fuse more than two kinds of biometric information, so as to achieve better identification effect. Experiments performed on various biometric databases shows that MGCDP method outperforms other state-of-the-art feature-level information fusion approaches.
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