李鸣 邱鸿霖 徐泉清 宋文鹏 Liu Baixiang
The Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications, 2021, 28 (5). doi： 10.19682/j.cnki.1005-8885.2021.0029
Abstract ( 535 ) PDF (3984 KB)( 140 )
At present, there is an urgent need for blockchain interoperability technology to realize interconnection between various blockchains, data communication and value transfer between blockchains, so as to break the ‘ value silo’ phenomenon of each blockchain. Firstly, it lists what people understand about the concept of interoperability. Secondly, it gives the key technical issues of cross-chain, including cross-chain mechanism, interoperability, eventual consistency, and universality. Then, the implementation of each cross-chain key technology is analyzed, including Hash-locking, two-way peg, notary schemes, relay chain scheme, cross-chain protocol, and global identity system. Immediately after that, five typical cross-chain systems are introduced and comparative analysis is made. In addition, two examples of cross-chain programmability and their analysis are given. Finally, the current state of cross-chain technology is summarized from two aspects: key technology implementation and cross-chain application enforcement. The cross-chain technology as a whole has formed a centralized fixed mechanism, as well as a trend of modular design, and some of the solutions to mature applications were established in the relevant standards organizations, and the cross-chain technology architecture tends to be unified, which is expected to accelerate the evolution of the open cross-chain network that supports the real needs of the interconnection of all chains.
The Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications, 2021, 28 (5). doi： 10.19682/j.cnki.1005-8885.2021.0028
Abstract ( 349 ) PDF (1270 KB)( 74 )
Threshold proxy re-encryption( PRE) authorizes the data access right of data subject to multiple proxies, who authorize the right again to delegatee to accomplish the end-to-end data encryption process from storage to authorization. Based on threshold PRE algorithm, in order to build a complete trusted data storage and authorization system, the four protocols, which are data access protocol, authorization proxy protocol, authorization proxy cancellation protocol and data reading authorization protocol, are defined completely. On that basis, an efficient data searching method is constructed by specifying the data delegatee. At last, to ensure the right to know of data, the audit log is processed with trusted data right confirmation based on distributed ledger technology. Meanwhile, a parallel data right confirmation processing method is defined based on hierarchical derivation algorithm of public and private key. In the end, the performance evaluation analysis of the protocol are given. Trusted data access and authorization protocol is convenient to build a complete data processing system on the premise of protecting data privacy based on public cloud storage system or distributed storage system.
The Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications, 2021, 28 (5). doi： 10.19682/j.cnki.1005-8885.2021.0030
Abstract ( 283 ) PDF (846 KB)( 55 )
Delegated proof-of-stake ( DPOS) consensus mechanism is widely adopted in blockchain platforms, but problems exist in its current applications. In order to explore the security risks in the voting attack of the DPOS consensus mechanism, an extensive game model between nodes was constructed, and it was concluded that the DPOS consensus mechanism relies too much on tokens, and the possibility of node attacks is very high. In order to solve the problems of frequent changes of DPOS consensus mechanism nodes, inactive node voting, excessive reliance on tokens, and malicious nodes, a dynamic, credible, and attack-evading DPOS consensus mechanism was proposed. In addition, the Python simulation results show that the improved Bayesian voting algorithm is effective in calculating node scores.
Cui Hongyan CAI Ziyin Teng Shaokai
The Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications, 2021, 28 (5). doi： 10.19682/j.cnki.1005-8885.2021.0032
Abstract ( 300 ) PDF (2975 KB)( 105 )
Data island and information opacity are two major problems in collaborative administration. Blockchain has the potential to provide a trustable and transparent environment encouraging data sharing among administration members. However, the blockchain only stores Hash values and transactions in blocks which makes it unable to store big data and trace their changes. In this paper, a labor arbitration scheme based on blockchain was proposed to share labor arbitration data. In the system, a collaborative administration scheme that provides a big data storage model combined blockchain and interplanetary file system ( IPFS) is designed. It can store big data and share these data among different parties. Moreover, a file version control mechanism based on blockchain is designed to manage the data changes in IPFS network. It creates a tracing chain that consists of many IPFS objects to track changes of stored data. The relationship of previous and current IPFS objects recorded by blockchain can describe the changes of administration data and trace the data operations. The proposed platform is used in Rizhao City in China, and the experiment result shows collaborative administration scheme achieves traceability with high throughput and is more efficient than traditional hypertext transfer protocol ( HTTP) way to share data.
刘巧 唐碧华 Chen Xue Fan Wu 范文浩
The Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications, 2021, 28 (5). doi： 10.19682/j.cnki.1005-8885.2021.0031
Abstract ( 313 ) PDF (3905 KB)( 87 )
Blockchain technology is used in edge computing ( EC) systems to solve the security problems caused by single point of failure ( SPOF) due to data loss, task execution failure, or control by malicious nodes. However, the disadvantage of blockchain is high latency, which contradicts the strict latency requirements of EC services. The existing single-level sharded blockchain system ( SLSBS) cannot provide different quality of service for different tasks. To solve these problems, a multi-level sharded blockchain system ( MLSBS) based on genetic algorithm ( GA) is proposed. The shards are classified according to the delay of the service, and the parameters such as the shard size of different shards are different. Using the GA, the MLSBS obtains the optimal resource allocation strategy that achieves maximum security. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme outperforms SLSBS.
The Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications, 2021, 28 (5). doi： 10.19682/j.cnki.1005-8885.2021.0020
Abstract ( 255 ) PDF (3086 KB)( 77 )
The color, shape, and other appearance characteristics of the flame emitted by different flame engines are different. In order to make a preliminary judgment on the category of the device to which it belongs through studying exterior characteristics of the flame, this paper uses the flame of matches, lighters, and candles to simulate different types of flames. It is hoped that the flames can be located and classified by detecting the characteristics of flames using the object detection algorithm. First, different types of fire are collected for the dataset of experiments. The mmDetection toolbox is then used to build several different object detection frameworks, in which the dataset can be trained and tested. The object detection model suitable for this kind of problem is obtained through the evaluation index analysis. The model is ResNet50-based faster-region-convolutional neural network ( Faster R- CNN), whose mean average-precision ( mAP) is 93.6% . Besides, after clipping the detected flames through object detection, a similarity fusion algorithm is used to aggregate and classify the three types of flames. Finally, the color components are analyzed to obtain the red, green, blue ( RGB) color histograms of the three flames.
The Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications, 2021, 28 (5). doi： 10.19682/j.cnki.1005-8885.2021.0023
Abstract ( 314 ) PDF (21118 KB)( 21 )
In order to solve the impact of image degradation on object detection, an object detection method based on light field super-resolution ( LFSR) is proposed. This method takes LFSR as an image enhancement step to provide high- quality images for object detection without using expensive imaging equipment. To evaluate this method, three types of objects: person, bicycle, and car, are chosen and the results are compared from 5 parts: detected object quantity, mean confidence score, detection results in different scenes, error detection, and detection results from different images sizes and detection speed. Experimental results based on the common object in context ( COCO) dataset show that the method incorporated LFSR improves performance of object detection models.
The Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications, 2021, 28 (5). doi： 10.19682/j.cnki.1005-8885.2021.0026
Abstract ( 244 ) PDF (774 KB)( 94 )
Existing algorithms of news recommendations lack in depth analysis of news texts and timeliness. To address these issues, an algorithm for news recommendations based on time factor and word embedding ( TFWE) was proposed to improve the interpretability and precision of news recommendations. First, TFWE used term frequency- inverse document frequency ( TF-IDF ) to extract news feature words and used the bidirectional encoder representations from transformers ( BERT ) pre-training model to convert the feature words into vector representations. By calculating the distance between the vectors, TFWE analyzed the semantic similarity to construct a user interest model. Second, considering the timeliness of news, a method of calculating news popularity by integrating time factors into the similarity calculation was proposed. Finally, TFWE combined the similarity of news content with the similarity of collaborative filtering ( CF) and recommended some news with higher rankings to users. In addition, results of the experiments on real dataset showed that TFWE significantly improved precision, recall, and F1 score compared to the classic hybrid recommendation algorithm.
The Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications, 2021, 28 (5). doi： 10.19682/j.cnki.1005-8885.2021.0025
Abstract ( 249 ) PDF (1960 KB)( 70 )
In distributed systems, it is important to adjust load distribution dynamically based on server performance and load information. Meanwhile, gray release and rapid expansion are the basic requirements to ensure reliability and stability for systems with short version iteration cycles. The traditional Hash algorithm performs poorly in gray release, rapid expansion, and load distribution. To solve these problems, a novel Hash-based dynamic mapping (HDM) load balancing algorithm was proposed. On the one hand, this algorithm can adjust the load distribution dynamically based on server performance and load information. On the other hand, it implements gray release by controlling the ratio of requests assigned to the changed nodes. Additionally, HDM has a higher expansion efficiency. Experiments show that the HDM distributes the load more reasonably, provides a more stable gray release ratio, and has a higher expansion efficiency.
The Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications, 2021, 28 (5). doi： 10.19682/j.cnki.1005-8885.2021.0027
Abstract ( 228 ) PDF (2021 KB)( 79 )
In order to predict traffic flow more accurately and improve network performance, based on the multifractal wavelet theory, a new traffic prediction model named exo-LSTM is proposed. Exo represents exogenous sequence used to provide a detailed sequence for the model, LSTM represents long short-term memory used to predict unstable traffic flow. Applying multifractal traffic flow to the exo-LSTM model and other existing models, the experiment result proves that exo-LSTM prediction model achieves better prediction accuracy.