With the increasing energy consumption, energy efficiency (EE) has been considered as an important metric for wireless communication networks as spectrum efficiency (SE). In this paper, EE optimization problem for downlink multi-user multiple-input multiple-output (MU-MIMO) system with massive antennas is investigated. According to the convex optimization theory, there exists a unique globally optimal power allocation achieving the optimal EE, and the closed-form of the optimal EE only related to channel state information is derived analytically. Then both the approximate and accurate power allocation algorithms with different complexity are proposed to achieve the optimal EE. Simulation results show that the optimal EE obtained by the approximate algorithm coincides to that achieved by the accurate algorithm within the controllable error limitation, and these proposed algorithms perform better than the existing equal power allocation algorithm. The optimal EE and corresponding SE increase with the number of antennas at base station, which is promising for the next generation wireless communication networks.
In the analysis of overlaid wireless Ad-hoc networks, the underlying node distributions are commonly assumed to be two independent homogeneous Poisson point processes. In this paper, by using stochastic geometry tools, a new inhomogeneous overlaid wireless Ad-hoc network model is studied and the outage probability are analyzed. By assuming that primary (PR) network nodes are distributed as a Poisson point process (PPP) and secondary (SR) network nodes are distributed as a Matern cluster processes, an upper and a lower bounds for the transmission capacity of the primary network and that of the secondary network are presented. Simulation results show that the transmission capacity of the PR and SR network will both have a small increment due to the inhomogeneity of the SR network.
Aiming to the estimation of source numbers, mixing matrix and separation of mixing signals under underdetermined case, the article puts forward a method of underdetermined blind source separation (UBSS) with an application in ultra-wideband (UWB) communication signals. The method is based on the sparse characteristic of UWB communication signals in the time domain. Firstly, finding the single source area by calculating the ratio of observed sampling points. Then an algorithm called hough-windowed method was introduced to estimate the number of sources and mixing matrix. Finally the separation of mixing signals using a method based on amended subspace projection. The simulation results indicate that the proposed method can separate UWB communication signals successfully, estimate the mixing matrix with higher accuracy and separate the mixing signals with higher gain compared with other conventional algorithms. At the same time, the method reflects the higher stability and the better noise immunity.
A scenario where one ‘dumb’ radio and multiple cognitive radios communicating simultaneously with a common receiver is considered. In this paper, we derive an achievable rate region of the multiple-user cognitive multiple-access channel (MUCMAC) under both additive white Gaussian noise (AWGN) channel and rayleigh fading channel, by using a combination of multiple user dirty paper coding (DPC) and superposition coding. Through cognition, it is assumed that the secondary users (SUs) are able to obtain the message of the primary user (PU) non-causally beforehand. Using this side information, the SUs can perform multiple user DPC to avoid the interference from the SU. Besides, the SUs can also allocate part of their transmit power to aid the PU, using superposition coding. Therefore, the capacity region of traditional multiple-access channel (MAC) can be enlarged. Moreover, some asymptotic results are shown as the number of SUs increases. In the AWGN case, it is illustrated that the maximum achievable rate of the PU grows logarithmically with the increase of the number of SUs, whereas in the Rayleigh case, we show that the cognitive gain will increase with the decreasing of the channel signal to noise ratio (SNR).
In this paper, to enhance the robustness against link imbalance, a hybrid cooperative protocol is proposed for amplify-and-forward (AF) opportunistic cooperation, where opportunistic relaying and multi-hop cooperation with relay ordering (RO) are dynamically selected to maximize the end to end signal-noise ratio (SNR), and the power allocation coefficient is optimized under total power constraint accordingly. Furthermore, a suboptimum allocation scheme with low complexity is proposed by employing the upper bound of harmonic mean. Simulation results show that the proposed scheme outperforms conventional AF opportunistic cooperation in variety of line type topology. Moreover, the efficiency of the proposed suboptimum allocation is also validated in large SNR region.
User pairing strategy for virtual multi-input multi-output (VMIMO) has been widely studied to improve system throughput, but most studies are based on perfect channel state information (CSI) and uniform power allocation. However, perfect CSI is very difficult or even impossible to obtain in practical system. Moreover power allocation has significant impact on algorithm performance. Therefore, in this paper, a low-complex joint user pairing and power allocation algorithm based on aggressive discrete stochastic optimization and Lagrangian dual solution is proposed for uplink VMIMO with imperfect CSI. Simulation results show that the proposed algorithm can achieve desirable throughput performance, and restrict inter-user interference (IUI) efficiently.
Orthogonal frequency division multiplexing (OFDM) is attracting more attention for its capability of high speed transmission. However, the OFDM possesses an obvious shortage in its high ratio of the peak power to the average power (PAPR), which has become the main issue holding it back to be applied to the broadband satellite communication system. OFDM combined with time division multiplexing (TDM), dividing the subcarriers of OFDM into some blocks in time tune, can decrease the high PAPR of OFDM. Meanwhile, the advantages of OFDM can be preserved. In this paper, OFDM/TDM is applied to the broadband satellite communication system. This paper theoretically analyses OFDM/TDM system model as well as its restraining effect on PAPR, and proposes frequency domain multiplexing-pilot (FDM-Pilot) channel estimation algorithm. Simulation results show OFDM/TDM in broadband satellite communication system has approving performance and decreased the PAPR.
In recent years, with the rapid development of data intensive applications, data replication has become an enabling technology for the data grid to improve data availability, and reduce file transfer time and bandwidth consumption. The placement of replicas has been proven to be the most difficult problem that must be solved to realize the process of data replication. This paper addresses the quality of service (QoS) aware replica placement problem in data grid, and proposes a dynamic programming based replica placement algorithm that not only has a QoS requirement guarantee, but also can minimize the overall replication cost, including storage cost and communication cost. By simulation, experiments show that the replica placement algorithm outperforms an existing popular replica placement technique in data grid.
Timely and cost-efficient multi-hop data delivery among vehicles is essential for vehicular ad-hoc networks (VANETs), and various routing protocols are envisioned for infrastructure-less vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communications. Generally, when a packet (or a duplicate) is delivered out of the routing path, it will be dropped. However, we observe that these packets (or duplicates) may also be delivered much faster than the packets delivered along the original routing path. In this paper, we propose a novel tree based routing scheme (TBRS) for ultilizing the dropped packets in VANETs. In TBRS, the packet is delivered along a routing tree with the destination as its root. And when the packet is delivered out its routing tree, it won’t be dropt immediately and will be delivered for a while if it can arrive at another branch of the tree. We conduct the extensive simulations to evaluate the performance of TBRS based on the road map of a real city collected from Google Earth. The simulation results show that TBRS can outperform the existing protocols, especially when the network resources are limited.
Adopting the borrowed address algorithm can decrease the orphan nodes in ZigBee networks that use distributed address assignment mechanism (DAAM). The existing borrowed address algorithms can increase the success rate of address assignment, but they have defects such as greater cost of overhead and time in founding network caused by breaking topology. To solve such problems, we propose an more efficient distributed borrowed address assignment algorithm based on topology maintenance (A2BTM) that has a topology maintenance function. It borrows address firstly from the offspring nodes in the same branch for the orphan nodes and replies distributed the request of the borrowed address message immediately, to maintain the network topology and decrease the overhead and time spent on the mechanism of borrowed address. Theoretical and simulation analyses manifest that A2BTM algorithm outperforms DAAM and its improved algorithms in terms of the overhead and time spent in founding network, on the premise of keeping a higher success rate of address assignment. Furthermore, A2BTM can lessen the influence from detour phenomenon efficiently.
This paper addresses the issue of real-time data transmission in vehicles to roadside (V2R) environment by the hybrid coordination function (HCF) of controlled channel access (HCCA) specified by the IEEE 802.11p standard. HCCA is one of the medium access mechanisms in the IEEE 802.11 standard, and uses the polling scheme similar to the point coordination function (PCF) to provide reliable quality of service (QoS), which may cause resource overshooting and high time consuming. This paper tries to improve the performance of the HCCA polling scheme and designs new data transmission scheduling scheme. The simulation results of the proposal are compared with those of the standard strategy. Simulation results demonstrate that the improved HCCA has lower delay, loss rate, and higher throughput than those of the standard one.
This article puts forward one algorithm for stream control transfer protocol (SCTP) improvement with limited receiver buffer (RBUF). As is well known, SCTP is one of the most important transfer control protocol, but most researches focus on the situations without the RBUF limit. In this study, we analyze the impact of the RBUF size on the performance. Computer simulations show that the network utility is low in reliable transfer, when the RBUF size is smaller than bandwidth delay product. By studying the transmission sequence number (TSN) transfer progress, we find that the peer receiver window (PEER_RWND), which lags behind the true receiver window (RWND), leads to the poor network utility. To improve SCTP performance with limited RBUF, the virtual receiver window (VIRTUAL_RWND) is introduced. Based on the VIRTUAL_RWND, one algorithm is proposed to increase the sending rate. Computer simulations have evaluated an excellent performance of the proposed algorithm at both ideal link without lost packet and nonideal link with lost packet.
Algebraic immunity is an important cryptographic property of Boolean functions. In this paper, odd-variable balanced Boolean functions with optimal algebraic immunity are obtained by m-sequence and consequently, we get bases with special constructions of vector space. Furthermore, through swapping some vectors of these two bases, we establish all kinds of odd-variable balanced Boolean functions with optimal algebraic immunity.
The display image of a PC can be reconstructed by using the conducted emission on the PC’s network cable. The relevant signals which be used to reconstruct the original image are coupling from the radiation of the switching of red, green, blue (RGB) signals in PC. These pertinent signals are partly contained in the frequency region higher than 30 MHz in the conducted emission. From these findings, the near-field coupling principle from PC to the network cable is analyzed firstly. And then, a multi-conductor transmission model for the RGB signals which transmit in the network cable is proposed. In addition, the maximum safe distance is estimated by using this model. In order to check the validity of the estimating distance, the eavesdropping experiment is carried out to reconstruct the original display image. The results demonstrate that the blurred display image can be retrieved at the place of 29.5 m.
This paper proposes a variation of Miller’s algorithm for Tate pairing computation on Weierstrass curves. Unlike the original Miller’s algorithm which consists of two major operations: the doubling operation and the addition operation, this new algorithm replaces the addition with a doubling-addition (DA) operation to take the advantage of the fast point doubling-addition formula. Explicit formulae are given for the new algorithm. We suggest to use the new formulae for Weierstrass curves with general parameters for Tate pairing to gain a better performance.
In this paper, we propose a novel source localization method to estimate parameters of arbitrary field sources, which may lie in near-field region or far-field region of array aperture. The proposed method primarily constructs two special spatial-temporal covariance matrixes which can avoid the array aperture loss, and then estimates the frequencies of signals to obtain the oblique projection matrixes. By using the oblique projection technique, the covariance matrixes can be transformed into several data matrixes which only contain single source information, respectively. At last, based on the sparse signal recovery method, these data matrixes are utilized to solve the source localization problem. Compared with the existing typical source localization algorithms, the proposed method improves the estimation accuracy, and provides higher angle resolution for closely spaced sources scenario. Simulation results are given to demonstrate the performance of the proposed algorithm.
In this paper, a sampling adaptive for block compressed sensing with smooth projected Landweber based on edge detection (SA-BCS-SPL-ED) image reconstruction algorithm is presented. This algorithm takes full advantage of the characteristics of the block compressed sensing, which assigns a sampling rate depending on its texture complexity of each block. The block complexity is measured by the variance of its texture gradient, big variance with high sampling rates and small variance with low sampling rates. Meanwhile, in order to avoid over-sampling and sub-sampling, we set up the maximum sampling rate and the minimum sampling rate for each block. Through iterative algorithm, the actual sampling rate of the whole image approximately equals to the set up value. In aspects of the directional transforms, discrete cosine transform (DCT), dual-tree discrete wavelet transform (DDWT), discrete wavelet transform (DWT) and Contourlet (CT) are used in experiments. Experimental results show that compared to block compressed sensing with smooth projected Landweber (BCS-SPL), the proposed algorithm is much better with simple texture images and even complicated texture images at the same sampling rate. Besides, SA-BCS-SPL-ED-DDWT is quite good for the most of images while the SA-BCS-SPL-ED-CT is likely better only for more-complicated texture images.
In this paper, we study the chaotic dynamics of the mode-locked fiber laser by numerical simulation. The structures of the passively mode-locked fiber laser and the actively mode-locked fiber laser are studied by modeling and analysis. By appropriately adjusting the small signal gain of the optical fiber amplifier, we observe the period-doubling bifurcations and route to chaos in the passively mode-locked fiber laser based on nonlinear polarization rotation effect. Chaos in the actively mode-locked erbium-doped fiber laser is obtained by adjusting the elliptic modulus parameter of the active modulator and the intra-cavity length. Simulation results have theoretical significance for the practical application of chaotic soliton communication.
In this paper, we study the Gray images of the Chinese product of constacyclic and cyclic codes over a finite ring. We first introduce the Chinese product of constacyclic and cyclic codes over the finite ring. We then define a Gray map between codes over the finite ring and a finite field. We prove that the Gray image of the Chinese product of constacyclic codes over the finite ring is a distance-invariant quasi-cyclic code over the finite field. We also prove that each code over the finite field, which is the Gray image of the Chinese product of cyclic codes over the finite ring, is permutation equivalent to a quasi-cyclic code.
A simple design of hybrid wavelength division multiplexed/ time division multiplexed passive optical network (WDM/ TDM-PON) is demonstrated for the high capacity next generation access (NGA) network, having advantages of both WDM and TDM based PON techniques. A 10 Gbit/s differential quadrature phase shift keying (DQPSK) data signal is used at optical line terminal (OLT) for downstream, whereas a 2.5 Gbit/s inverse return-to-zero (IRZ) data signal with high extinction ratio is used for upstream signal by intensity re-modulation of downstream signal, no additional laser is used at optical network unit (ONU). Simulation results verify that aggregated 100 Gbit/s downstream transmissions of 10 DQPSK channels and aggregated 25 Gbit/s upstream transmission of 10 IRZ channels, using spectrally-efficient 50 GHz channel spacing, can be successfully achieved over a distance of 20 km with less than 1 dB transmission power penalties and improved receiver sensitivity.
Considering the inherent characteristics of incomplete fingerprint: local feature loss and global information distortion, the recognition progress has been mainly restricted by two critical problems: how to precisely extract informative features and still with compact representation of the incomplete fingerprint; and how to effectively measure the similarity between fingerprint images. In this paper, to handle the first problem, both the minutiae and orientation field feature are extracted and then fused to get a more comprehensive feature with scale and rotation invariability. Dealing with the second one, the pattern entropy is introduced to robustly measure the similarity of two incomplete fingerprints. Extensive experiments have been conducted on both those popular fingerprint databases and our extended databases containing more incomplete fingerprints. Meanwhile, thorough performance comparisons have been made with existing approaches. Experimental results show that our approach has more efficient ability especially in incomplete fingerprint recognition, and also performs well in both accuracy and efficiency.