Propagation and Control for Complex Dynamical Network

  • Propagation and Control for Complex Dynamical Network

    Luo Lang

    Complex dynamical networks have emerged as powerful tools for studying the characteristics and evolutions of various real-world social and engineering networks, such as multi-agent systems, power grids, biological networks, and epidemic spreading. The study of complex dynamical networks is crucial for understanding complex systems and provides a solid theoretical foundation for network science and engineering. Currently, scholars from different fields are especially interested in the issues of propagation and control in complex dynamical networks, leading to important achievements in related research areas. 

    The field of complex network propagation dynamics focuses on investigating the processes and patterns of information, diseases, and ideas spreading within complex network structures. Researchers employ various methods, including mathematical modeling, computational simulations, and analysis of real-world data, to explore the impact of network topology, node characteristics, and propagation rules on information dissemination. This research aims to reveal the patterns and characteristics of information propagation within complex networks, which has practical implications for understanding disease transmission mechanisms, social media information dissemination, and the influence of public opinions. 

    From the control discipline perspective, the study of complex dynamical networks mainly concentrates on synchronization and control, state estimation, topology identification, and propagation dynamics. Accurate network control is essential for promptly detecting network faults, ensuring normal network operation, and efficiently allocating network resources. Extensive research has been conducted in the field of complex network control, utilizing diverse control strategies, such as pulse control, pulse check control, hybrid control, adaptive control, sliding mode control, and model predictive control. Complex network control has been successfully applied in various domains, including formation control, attitude control, cooperative decision making, power networks, fault diagnosis, and clustering in data mining.

    As network scales continue to expand, they become susceptible to external unreliable factors, such as topological changes, random noise, and data packet loss. These uncertain factors can significantly impact the stability of the entire complex network system, consequently affecting the effectiveness of network propagation analysis and control. Therefore, current research results in this field still have certain limitations, and there remain several meaningful and challenging questions that require further investigation. It is hoped that more experts and scholars will contribute to this field of research, sharing significant findings, and introducing new methods for the propagation and control of complex networks, ultimately applying them widely in practical engineering applications.

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    Dynamic event-triggered leader-follower consensus of nonlinear multi-agent systems under directed weighted topology
    Wu Yue, Chen Xiangyong, Qiu Jianlong, Hu Shunwei, Zhao Feng
    The Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications    2023, 30 (6): 3-10.   DOI: 10.19682/j.cnki.1005-8885.2023.1019
    Abstract691)      PDF(pc) (1536KB)(231)       Save
    This paper studies the dynamic event-triggered leader-follower consensus of nonlinear multi-agent systems (MASs) under directed weighted graph containing a directed spanning tree, and also considers the effects of disturbances and leader of non-zero control inputs in the system. Firstly, a novel distributed control protocol is designed for uncertain disturbances and leader of non-zero control inputs in MASs. Secondly, a novel dynamic event-triggered control ( DETC) strategy is proposed, which eliminates the need for continuous communication between agents and reduces communication resources between agents. By introducing dynamic thresholds, the complexity of excluding Zeno behavior within the system is reduced. Finally, the effectiveness of the proposed theory is validated through numerical simulation.
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    Distributed consensus of Lurie multi-agent systems under directed topology: a contraction approach
    Zhang Xiaojiao, Wu Xiang
    The Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications    2023, 30 (6): 11-21.   DOI: 10.19682/j.cnki.1005-8885.2023.1018
    Abstract578)      PDF(pc) (3622KB)(132)       Save
    This paper is devoted to investigate the consensus problems for the multi-agent systems with Lurie nonlinear dynamics in directed topology. Under some assumptions, some sufficient conditions for the systems reaching leaderless consensus and tracking consensus are established by using contraction analysis theory. Compared with the existing results, there is no need to formulate the multi-agent networks in compact form. These conditions are only related to the individual agent in lower-dimensional case and the communication topology of the network. Additionally, a generalized nonlinear function is introduced. Finally, three numerical examples are demonstrated to illustrate the effectiveness of the theoretical results.
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    Parameter optimization of complex network based on the change-point identification
    Xu Xingtao, Tao Jiagui
    The Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications    2023, 30 (6): 22-29.   DOI: 10.19682/j.cnki.1005-8885.2023.1014
    Abstract581)      PDF(pc) (6155KB)(84)       Save
    This paper proposes a novel method for the parameter optimization of complex networks established through coarsening and phase space reconstruction. Firstly, we identify the change-points of the time series based on the cumulative sum ( CUSUM) control chart method. Then, we optimize the coarse-graining parameters and phase space embedding dimension based on the evolution analysis of the global topology index ( betweenness) at the mutation point. Finally, we conduct a simulation analysis based on real-time data of Chinese copper spot prices. The results show that the delay of the copper spot prices in Chinese spot market is 1 day, and the optimal embedding dimension of the phase space reconstruction is 3. The acceptance level of the investors towards the small fluctuations in copper spot prices is 0.2 times than the average level of price fluctuations, which means that an average price fluctuation of 0.2 times is the optimal coarse- graining parameter.
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    Stability and Hopf bifurcation analysis in DCTCP congestion control
    Cheng Zunshui, Jiang Jingna, Sun Dongsheng
    The Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications    2023, 30 (6): 30-37.   DOI: 10.19682/j.cnki.1005-8885.2023.1015
    Abstract688)      PDF(pc) (3657KB)(79)       Save
    Traditional loss-based transports cannot meet the strict requirements of low latency and high throughput in data center networks (DCNs). Thus data center transmission control protocol (DCTCP) is proposed to better manage the congestion control in DCNs. To provide insight into improving the stability of the DCN, this paper focuses on the Hopf bifurcation analysis of a fluid model of DCTCP, and investigates the stability of the network. The round-trip time (RTT), being an effective congestion signal, is selected as the bifurcation parameter. And the network turns unstable and generates periodic solutions when the parameter is larger than the given critical value, which is given by explicit algorithms. The analytical results reveal the existence of Hopf bifurcation. Numerical simulations are performed to make a comparative analysis between the fluid model and the simplified model of DCTCP. The influence of other parameters on the DCN stability is also discussed.
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    Linear-quadratic optimal control for time-varying descriptor systems via space decompositions
    Lv Pengchao, Huang Junjie, Liu Bo
    The Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications    2023, 30 (6): 38-48.   DOI: 10.19682/j.cnki.1005-8885.2023.1011
    Abstract653)      PDF(pc) (1663KB)(75)       Save
    This paper aims at solving the linear-quadratic optimal control problems ( LQOCP) for time-varying descriptor systems in a real Hilbert space. By using the Moore-Penrose inverse theory and space decomposition technique, the descriptor system can be rewritten as a new differential-algebraic equation (DAE), and then some novel sufficient conditions for the solvability of LQOCP are obtained. Especially, the methods proposed in this work are simpler and easier to verify and compute, and can solve LQOCP without the range inclusion condition. In addition, some  numerical examples are shown to verify the results obtained.
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    Node interdependent percolation of multiplex hypergraph with weak interdependence
    Zhang Junjie, Liu Caixia, Liu Shuxin, Zang Weifei, Li Qian
    The Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications    2023, 30 (6): 49-59.   DOI: 10.19682/j.cnki.1005-8885.2023.1016
    Abstract629)      PDF(pc) (3049KB)(89)       Save
    In recent years, there has been considerable attention and research on the higher-order interactions that are prevalent in various real-world networks. Hypergraphs, especially in the study of complex systems, are proved effective in capturing these interactions. To better characterize the model in reality, this paper proposes a theoretical model of node interdependent percolation in multiplex hypergraphs, considering “ weak ” interdependence. The proposed model includes pairwise and higher-order interactions, where the removal of nodes triggers cascading failures. However, interdependent nodes connected to failed nodes experience partial loss of connections due to “ weak” interdependence, reflecting the self-sustaining capabilities of real-world systems. Percolation theory is applied to the analysis to investigate the properties of the percolation threshold and phase transition. Both analysis and simulation results show that as the strength of interdependence between nodes weakens, the network transitions from a discontinuous to a continuous phase, thereby increasing its robustness.
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    Characteristics and modeling of UAV-vehicle MIMO wideband channels
    Liang Xiaolin, Ma Jiaxu, Cao Wangbin, Xu Jianpeng, Liu Shuaiqi, Zhao Xiongwen
    The Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications    2023, 30 (6): 60-67.   DOI: 10.19682/j.cnki.1005-8885.2023.1012
    Abstract545)      PDF(pc) (2101KB)(71)       Save
    A geometry-based stochastic model ( GBSM) for unmanned aerial vehicle to vehicle ( UAV-V) multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) wideband channel is proposed to investigate the characteristics of UAV-V channel. Based on the proposed model, a three-dimensional (3D) wideband channel matrix regarding channel numbers, time and delay is constructed. And some important channel characteristics parameters, such as power delay profile (PDP), root mean square ( RMS) delay spread, RMS Doppler spread, channel gain and Doppler power spectral density (PSD) are investigated with different vehicle velocities. It is much simpler and clearer compared with the complex analytical derivations. The results are compared with validated analysis to confirm the theoretical analysis.
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    Fairness optimization and power allocation in cognitive NOMA / OMA V2V network with imperfect SIC
    Liang Xiaolin, Liu Qianlong, Cao Wangbin, Liu Shuaiqi, Zhao Shuhuan, Zhao Xiongwen
    The Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications    2023, 30 (6): 68-81.   DOI: 10.19682/j.cnki.1005-8885.2023.1020
    Abstract618)      PDF(pc) (4592KB)(83)       Save
    In order to improve the reliability and resource utilization efficiency of vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) communication system, in this paper, the fairness optimization and power allocation for the cognitive V2V network that takes into account the realistic three-dimensional (3D) channel are investigated. Large-scale and small-scale fading are considered in the proposed channel model. An adaptive non-orthogonal multiple access ( NOMA) / orthogonal multiple access (OMA) scheme is proposed to reduce the complexity of successive-interference-cancellation (SIC) in decoding and improve spectrum utilization. Also, a fairness index that takes into account each user’s requirements is proposed to indicate the optimal point clearly. In the imperfect SIC, the optimization problem of maximizing user fairness is formulated. Then, a subgradient descent method is proposed to solve the optimization problem with customizable precision. And the computational complexity of the proposed method is analyzed. The achievable rate, outage probability and user fairness are analyzed. The results show that the proposed adaptive NOMA / OMA (A-NOMA / OMA) outperforms both NOMA and OMA. The simulation results are compared with validated analysis to confirm the theoretical analysis.
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    Behavioral finance between the spot and futures markets based on multilayer network
    Zhang Sicong, Dai Jianzhuo, Huang Wenjing, Mi Xinping
    The Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications    2023, 30 (6): 82-88.   DOI: 10.19682/j.cnki.1005-8885.2023.1013
    Abstract906)      PDF(pc) (3117KB)(76)       Save
    In order to study the financial behavior of investors in the spot market, the transmission process of futures prices to spot prices is analyzed. Firstly, a coarse-graining method is proposed to construct a dual-layer coupled complex network of spot price and futures price. Then, to characterize the financial behavior of investors in the spot market, a price coupling strength indicator is introduced to capture investors' overreaction and underreaction behavior. The simulation results show that, despite the focus of researchers on arbitrage opportunities between futures and spot markets, investors in the spot market will not overreact or delay when the acceptance level of price fluctuations remains unchanged. On the contrary, when the stable coefficient of the price difference between the futures and spot markets remains unchanged, investors undergo a nonlinear process of overreaction followed by underreaction as their acceptance level of price fluctuations increases.
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    Performance analysis of different coding schemes for wideband vehicle-to-vehicle MIMO systems
    Liang Xiaolin, Rong Zhanyi, Cao Wangbin, Liu Shuaiqi, Zhao Xiongwen
    The Journal of China Universities of Posts and Telecommunications    2023, 30 (6): 89-98.   DOI: 10.19682/j.cnki.1005-8885.2023.1017
    Abstract591)      PDF(pc) (2637KB)(101)       Save
    The signal is subjected to lots of interferences in vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) channel propagation, resulting in receiving error codes. Two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) geometrical channel models are used to depict the wideband V2V multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) channels. Using the channel model, Turbo code and low-density parity-check (LDPC) code are investigated for wideband V2V MIMO system, and the encoding and the decoding schemes are investigated. The bit error rate (BER), channel capacity and outage probability of wideband V2V MIMO system using Turbo code and LDPC code are analyzed at different typical speeds. The results show that the performance of wideband V2V MIMO system using Turbo code outperform that using LDPC code. The performance is affected by transmitting and receiving speeds with the same coding scheme. And the channel capacity of the 3D channel is larger than that of 2D channel.
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